Tradicionalni recepti

Studija kaže da pušenje pogoršava mamurluk

Studija kaže da pušenje pogoršava mamurluk

Možemo li umjesto toga predložiti hamburger?

Ispravan mamurluk rijetko se izliječi bez krvave Marije i hamburgera, ali te užine u alkoholu mogu skupo koštati. Dakle, koji je lakši način da spriječite mamurluk? Prestani pušiti.

Prema studiji objavljenoj u Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, istraživači su otkrili da studenti koji su pušili cigaretu ili dvije prije nego što su pili imaju tendenciju da imaju gori mamurluk. Učenici koji prije pušenja nisu pušili sišli su lako. "Kod istog broja pića, ljudi koji puše više tog dana imaju veću vjerojatnost da će imati mamurluk i imati intenzivniji mamurluk", rekao je glavni autor Doktor Damaris Rohsenow rekao je za Daily Mail.

Stvarna mehanika odnosa između pušenja i mamurluka još uvijek nije jasna; Rohsenow kaže da su nikotinski receptori u mozgu također uključeni u naš odgovor na piće, oba pojačavaju dopamin; činjenica da su dvije tvari povezane u mozgu može objasniti zašto su obje povezane s mamurlukom.

Duhanski dim također sadrži kemikaliju acetaldehid, koji igra ulogu u mučnini i glavobolji najgoreg mamurluka; zato prestanite da pišete od prijatelja, posebno na vašoj prazničnoj zabavi; bit ćete zahvalni jutro poslije.


Pušenje i COVID-19

Štete upotrebe duhana dobro su utvrđene. Duhan uzrokuje 8 miliona smrtnih slučajeva svake godine od kardiovaskularnih bolesti, poremećaja pluća, raka, dijabetesa i hipertenzije.1 Pušenje je također poznati faktor rizika za teške bolesti i smrt od mnogih respiratornih infekcija.2-4 U pandemiji COVID-19, postavljana su pitanja o kliničkim ishodima za pušače i o tome jesu li podjednako podložni infekciji i ima li nikotin biološki učinak na virus SAR-CoV-2 (virus koji uzrokuje COVID-19). 5-7 U vrijeme pisanja ovog članka najavljeno je jedno kliničko ispitivanje za ispitivanje učinaka nikotina, ali od 12. svibnja 2020. nije nađen zapis o registraciji ispitivanja. Ovaj pregled stoga ocjenjuje dostupnu recenziranu literaturu o povezanosti pušenja. i COVID-19, uključujući 1) rizik od infekcije SARS-CoV-2 2) hospitalizaciju s COVID-19 i 3) ozbiljnost ishoda COVID-19 među hospitaliziranim pacijentima, poput prijema na odjele intenzivne njege (ICU), upotrebu ventilatora i smrti.

Metode

Pregled je proveden 12. maja 2020. godine o pušenju i COVID-19, koristeći MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane biblioteku i globalnu bazu podataka SZO. Uključena su kvantitativna primarna istraživanja na odraslima ili sekundarne analize takvih studija. Tražene su pojedinačne studije uključene u meta-analize koje na drugi način nisu identificirane u pretraživanju.

Zbog preliminarne prirode mnogih nerecenziranih izvještaja objavljenih tokom pandemije COVID-19, spremišta za priještampane materijale namjerno su isključena iz ovog pregleda.

Pregled dokaza

Trideset četiri recenzirane studije ispunile su kriterije za uključivanje. Sve uključene studije bile su na engleskom jeziku. Nijedan nije ispitivao upotrebu duhana i rizik od infekcije ili rizik od hospitalizacije. Identificirano je ukupno 26 opservacijskih studija i osam metaanaliza. Sve opservacijske studije izvijestile su o prevalenciji pušenja među hospitaliziranim pacijentima s COVID-19. Dve meta-analize prijavile su objedinjenu prevalenciju pušenja kod hospitalizovanih pacijenata koristeći podskup ovih studija (između 6 i 13 studija).

Osamnaest od 26 opservacijskih studija koje sadrže podatke o statusu pušenja prema ozbiljnosti ishoda COVID-19. Identificirano je šest metaanaliza koje su ispitivale povezanost pušenja i ozbiljnosti COVID-19. Devet od 18 studija uključeno je u šest meta-analiza pušenja i težine (pet do sedam studija u svakoj analizi), što je rezultiralo da se 1.604 seta podataka o pacijentima prijavljuje više puta. Svi podaci u šest metaanaliza dolaze od pacijenata u Kini.

Koliki je rizik da pušači budu zaraženi SARS-CoV-2?

Trenutno ne postoje recenzirane studije koje su procjenjivale rizik od infekcije SARS-CoV-2 među pušačima. Ovo istraživačko pitanje zahtijeva dobro osmišljene populacijske studije koje kontroliraju dob i relevantne temeljne faktore rizika.

Koliki je rizik od pušenja koji će biti hospitalizirani zbog COVID-19?

Trenutno ne postoje recenzirane studije koje izravno procjenjuju rizik od hospitalizacije s COVID-19 među pušačima. Međutim, 27 opservacijskih studija pokazalo je da pušači čine 1,4-18,5% odraslih osoba hospitaliziranih. 8-32 Objavljene su dvije meta-analize koje su objedinile prevalenciju pušača u hospitaliziranim pacijentima u različitim studijama u Kini. Meta-analiza Emamija i sur. 33 je analiziralo podatke za 2986 pacijenata i otkrilo da je udružena prevalencija pušenja 7,6% (3,8% -12,4%), dok su Farsalinos i sur. 34 su analizirala podatke za 5960 hospitaliziranih pacijenata i otkrila zajedničku prevalenciju od 6,5% (1,4% - 12,6%).

Koji je rizik od teške bolesti COVID-19 i smrti među pušačima?

Meta-analize:

Zhao i sur.35 analizirali su podatke iz 7 studija (1726 pacijenata) i pronašli statistički značajnu povezanost između pušenja i ozbiljnosti ishoda COVID-19 među pacijentima (Odds Ratio (OR) 2.0 (95% CI 1.3 & ndash 3.1). Statistička značajnost nestao je kada je najveća studija Guan et al.13 uklonjena iz analize (test osjetljivosti kako bi se vidio utjecaj jedne studije na nalaze meta-analize) .Ažurirana verzija ove meta-analize koja je uključivala dodatnu studija je ostala značajna kada je primijenjen ovaj isti test osjetljivosti.36 Zheng i sur.37 analizirali su podatke iz 5 studija na ukupno 1980 pacijenata i otkrili statistički značajnu povezanost između pušenja i ozbiljnosti COVID-19 pri korištenju modela sa fiksnim efektima: OR: 2.0 ( 95% CI 1.3 i ndash 3.2). Lippi i sur.38 analizirali su podatke iz 5 studija na ukupno 1399 pacijenata i otkrili značajnu povezanost između pušenja i težine. Guo et al., 39, međutim, kasnije su identificirali greške u kalc. i zaključio da je ova povezanost zaista statistički značajna (OR 2,2 (95% CI 1,3 i ndash 3,7). Vardavas i sur.40 analizirali su podatke iz 5 studija na ukupno 1549 pacijenata i izračunali relativni rizik koji ukazuje na značajnu vezu između pušenja i ozbiljnosti COVID-19. Međutim, isti autori otkrili su statistički značajnu povezanost između statusa pušenja i primarnih krajnjih tačaka prijema na Odjeljenje intenzivne njege (ICU), upotrebe ventilatora ili smrti.

Pojedinačne studije koje nisu uključene u meta-analize:

Devet studija nije uključeno ni u jednu od identificiranih metaanaliza. Jedna od ovih studija izvijestila je o opservacijskim podacima za 7162 osobe u bolničkim i ambulantnim ustanovama u Sjedinjenim Američkim Državama, ali nije uključivala nikakvu statističku analizu povezanosti. 10 Još jedno istraživanje na 323 hospitalizovana pacijenta u Wuhanu, Kina, izvijestilo je o statistički značajnoj povezanosti između pušenja i težine bolesti (OR 3,5 (95% CI 1,2 i ndash 10,2) .15 Kozak i sur. prijem i smrtnost među 226 pacijenata u Torontu, Kanada. Preostalih šest studija bile su male serije slučajeva (u rasponu od 11 do 145 osoba) koje nisu izvijestile o statistički značajnoj povezanosti između statusa pušenja i težine COVID-1,8, 11, 18, 27 , 42 osim Yu i sur.43 koji su izvijestili o studiji na 70 pacijenata statistički značajnoj OR od 16,1 (95% CI 1,3 & ndash 204,2) u multivarijantnoj analizi koja je ispitivala povezanost između pušenja i pogoršanja upale pluća nakon liječenja.

Ograničenja

Bolničke studije koje izvještavaju o karakteristikama pacijenata mogu patiti od nekoliko ograničenja, uključujući lošu kvalitetu podataka. Prikupljanje povijesti pušenja izazov je u hitnim slučajevima, a težina bolesti često nije jasno definirana i nedosljedna je u svim studijama. Takve su studije također sklone značajnoj pristranosti uzorkovanja. Karakteristike onih koji su hospitalizirani razlikovat će se ovisno o zemlji i kontekstu, ovisno o raspoloživim resursima, pristupu bolnicama, kliničkim protokolima i eventualno drugim faktorima koji nisu uzeti u obzir u studijama. Nadalje, većina studija nije izvršila statistička prilagođavanja kako bi uzela u obzir dob i druge zbunjujuće faktore.

Dobro osmišljene populacijske studije potrebne su za rješavanje pitanja o riziku od infekcije SARS-CoV-2 i riziku od hospitalizacije s COVID-19.

Zaključci

U vrijeme ovog pregleda, dostupni dokazi ukazuju na to da je pušenje povezano s povećanom težinom bolesti i smrću u hospitaliziranih pacijenata s COVID-19. Iako je vjerojatno povezano s težinom, nema dokaza koji bi kvantificirali rizik za pušače od hospitalizacije s COVID-19 ili infekcije SARS-CoV-2 pronađeni su u recenziranoj literaturi. Za rješavanje ovih pitanja potrebne su populacijske studije.

Povezane preporuke SZO

S obzirom na dobro utvrđene štete povezane s upotrebom duhana i izloženošću pasivnom pušenju2 WHO preporučuje korisnicima duhana da prestanu koristiti duhan. Dokazane intervencije koje pomažu korisnicima da prestanu uključivati ​​su besplatne linije za odustajanje, programi za prekid mobilnih tekstualnih poruka, terapije zamjene nikotina i drugi odobreni lijekovi.


U potrazi za lijekom za strašni mamurluk

Može li nauka pomoći u prevazilaženju fizičkih posljedica konzumiranja previše alkohola, mada ne žali?

Od izuma fermentiranih pića, izliječenje strašnih posljedica prekomjernog upijanja jedno je od jutarnjih traženja čovječanstva. Stari Grci su jeli ovčja pluća i dva jaja sove kako bi izliječili takav mamurluk, lijek koji je izmijenio Rimljanin Gaj Plinius Secundus, poznatiji kao Plinije Stariji, koji je predložio sirova jaja sove ili prženu kanarinku. Sicilijanci su preporučili sušeni bikov penis, iako Mongoli preferiraju sok od rajčice i ukiseljene ovčje & rsquos oči.

Ali šta kažu naučnici? Uostalom, mamurluci su samo SAD koštali oko 224 milijarde dolara godišnje zbog pada produktivnosti na radnom mjestu, zdravstvenih troškova povezanih s pićem, provođenja zakona i troškova nesreća i smrtnih slučajeva u motornim vozilima, prema američkim centrima za kontrolu bolesti.

Osim fiskalne štete, naučnici mamurluk shvaćaju ozbiljno iz više razloga nego zbog pomaganja boli nakon pijenja. & ldquoProučavanje alkohola može nam reći kako tijelo funkcionira na uobičajen način, & rdquo kaže Michael Oshinsky, direktor pretkliničkog istraživanja na Univerzitetu Thomas Jefferson u Philadelphiji, koji proučava mamurluk kako bi bolje razumio migrene. Kad se tijelo dovede do fizičkih granica da metabolizira alkohol, ono pomaže pokazati što uzrokuje glavobolje i mdashone uobičajenih komponenti mamurluka.

Uzrok mamurluka
Ubrzo nakon što osoba počne konzumirati alkoholno piće, jetra počinje raditi. Enzim alkohol dehidrogenaza (ADH) metabolizira etanol (to je vrsta alkohola u alkoholu) u otrovni acetaldehid. Odatle enzim jetre aldehid dehidrogenaza (ALDH) metaboliše acetaldehid u acetat, manje toksično jedinjenje koje se razlaže na vodu i ugljen -dioksid. Prema Odjelu za zdravstvo i socijalne usluge, neki metabolizam alkohola događa se i u gušterači, gastrointestinalnom traktu i mozgu, ali jetra obavlja najveći dio posla sa svoja dva enzima.

Problem je: za sve ovo potrebno je vrijeme, a sljedećeg dana pijanac pati.

Taj užasan osjećaj sljedećeg dana je stanje koje se često naziva mamurluk, što je časopis Alkohol i alkoholizam okarakterizira kao & ldquogeneralnu bijedu & rdquo sa simptomima pospanosti, problema s koncentracijom, suhoćom u ustima, vrtoglavicom, gastrointestinalnim tegobama, znojenjem, mučninom, hiperekscitabilnošću i anksioznošću. Većina ovih simptoma povezana je s povišenim razinama acetaldehida.

U studiji iz 2000. godine ldquoUloga acetaldehida u djelovanju alkohola, & rdquo koja je objavljena u Alkoholizam: klinička i eksperimentalna istraživanja Studija je pokazala da su povišene razine acetaldehida uzrokovale povećanu temperaturu kože, crvenilo lica, ubrzan rad srca, niži krvni tlak, suha usta, mučninu i glavobolju. Istraživači su izvijestili da prekomjerno pijenje dovodi do povišenih razina acetaldehida, što dovodi do inhibiranja enzima ALDH, a zauzvrat izaziva te štetne učinke. Alkohol se ne metaboliše pravilno.

Japanski istraživači su dalje proučavali ulogu acetaldehida, ali posebno kod japanskih radnika čije tijelo nije moglo razbiti alkohol. Konkretno, proučavali su učesnike sa alelom (mutiranim genom) aldehid dehidrogenaza-2 i oni sa neaktivnošću ALDH2. Ova enzimska mutacija dovodi do toga da mnogi azijskog porijekla postanu crveni tokom pijenja. Studija je zaključila da je acetaldehid možda krivac iza mamurluka nakon što je otkriveno da se acetaldehid brzo metabolizira s normalnim ALDH enzimima, ali su sudionici s enzimskom mutacijom doživjeli kardiovaskularne komplikacije, pospanost, mučninu, astmu, crvenilo lica i bili su izloženi većem riziku od mamurluka.

Dok je ovo istraživanje bilo ograničeno na japanske subjekte, istaknuti istraživači nastavljaju primjećivati ​​da acetaldehid vjerovatno uzrokuje mamurluk. Tokom 2014 Funkcija hrane i pojačala papir, & ldquoUčinci biljnih infuzija, čaja i gaziranih pića na aktivnost alkoholne dehidrogenaze i aldehid dehidrogenaze, & rdquo Kineski naučnici utvrdili su da je acetaldehid & ldquoprimarni posrednik & mamla mamurluka & rsquos & rsquos Ovi naučnici su takođe rekli da drugi metabolit, acetat, može pružiti zaštitne zdravstvene efekte povezane sa redovnom umjerenom konzumacijom alkohola.

No, istraživanja na mamurnim štakorima sugeriraju da nakupljanje acetata nije dobra stvar, te da može biti odgovorno za mamurluk. & ldquoZato što je acetaldehid vrlo reaktivno jedinjenje i otrovno za tijelo, vaše tijelo ima efikasan mehanizam za rješavanje toga. Pretvara ga u vrlo stabilno jedinjenje, koje je acetat, "kaže rdquo Oshinsky. & ldquoVaše tijelo je napunjeno acetatom i postoji mnogo drugih bioloških procesa koji imaju acetat kao nusprodukt. & rdquo Previše acetata može izazvati gadnu glavobolju. Oshinski je svoj rad objavio u recenziranoj publici PLOS ONE decembra 2010. Njegovi nalazi su načelno potkrijepljeni dijaliznim istraživanjem. Ljekari koji rade s pacijentima sa otkaznim bubrezima koristili su natrij acetat za puferiranje dijalizata, jedne od dvije dijalizne tekućine koja se koristi za čišćenje krvi, i otkrili su značajne glavobolje u oko 30 posto pacijenata. Nakon što su istraživači na dijalizi prebacili pufer sa natrijum acetata na natrijum borat, kaže Oshinsky, stopa glavobolje pala je na manje od 2 posto. Ovi dokazi podupiru činjenicu da acetat, a ne acetaldehid, uzrokuje mamurluk, dodaje, ili barem mamurluk.

No, jedno drugo istraživanje sugerira da su kongeneri alkohola i sličnih tvari [srodne tvari] vjerojatniji mamurluk nego metaboliti. & ldquo [Kongeneri] se pojavljuju u alkoholnim pićima, uglavnom kao posljedica procesa koji se koriste pri fermentaciji i starenju, & rdquo kaže Damaris Rohsenow, profesorica istraživanja na Centru za bihevioralne i društvene nauke za studije alkohola i ovisnosti na Univerzitetu Brown University School of Public Health, koji čini ih sve rasprostranjenijim u pićima odleženim u bačvama, kao što su rakija, vino i viski. Kongeneri uključuju sam acetaldehid, kao i aceton, fuzolno ulje, furfural, metabolite metanola, polifenole, histamine, estre, tanine, amine i amide, između ostalih. Svi su povezani s opojnim djelovanjem alkohola i pića.

Prema Rohsenow & rsquos & ldquo Otrovanje burbonom naspram votke: učinci na mamurluk, san i neurokognitivne performanse sljedećeg dana objavljeno u Alkoholizam: klinička i eksperimentalna istraživanja, zdravi alkoholičari od 21 do 33 učestvovali su u dvije noći pijenja nakon noći aklimatizacije, povećavajući srednju razinu alkohola u krvi od 0,11 posto na votki ili burbonu jedne noći sa odgovarajućim placebom druge noći. Studija je pokazala da su kongeneri povećali ozbiljnost mamurluka, a da se ljudi osjećaju gore nakon burbona. Bourbon viski ima 37 puta više srodnika od votke jer burbon odležava u hrastovim bačvama, izlučujući različite molekule. Ali to nisu sve loše vijesti za burbon. & ldquoNeki kongeneri viskija, posebno butanol, zapravo štite sluznicu želuca od oštećenja [oštećenje sluznice želuca], pa bi potencijalno [to] moglo zaštititi od osjećaja mučnine, "kaže rhquo Rohsenow

Što se tiče mamurluka, Rohsenow kaže da sam etilni alkohol još uvijek može biti glavni krivac. & ldquoNaša studija koja je uspoređivala pića s visokim i vrlo niskim sadržajem kongenera pokazala je da je većina učinka pijenja na mamurluk posljedica samog etanola, dok su druge kemikalije značajno povećale mamurluk, ali čine mnogo manji postotak učinka na mamurluk, & rdquo kaže ona .

Lijekovi protiv mamurluka
Sada je dio koji ste čekali: Savremeni naučnici imaju gotovo onoliko lijekova za mamurluk koliko se prenosilo od davnina. Prošle godine kineski istraživači sa Univerziteta Sun Yat-sen u Kini, Funkcija hrane i pojačala koautori rada, proučavali su 57 različitih utjecaja biljnih i gaziranih pića na enzime koji razgrađuju i oslobađaju tijelo od acetaldehida, odnosno acetata. Otkrili su da neka pića, naime biljna infuzija zvana & ldquoHuo ma ren,& rdquo koji se sastoji od sjemena konoplje, povećane razine ADH. To je ubrzalo razgradnju alkohola, ali i inhibiralo enzim odgovoran za uklanjanje acetata. Studija je pokazala da, iako su zeleni čajevi bogati antioksidansima, ldquoseriously zabranjuju & rdquo metabolizam alkohola. Istraživači su napisali da je bolje ne piti proizvode od čaja za vrijeme ili nakon prekomjerne konzumacije alkohola.

S druge strane, četiri pića povećavaju aktivnost ADH -a i ALDH -a, pomažući brže metaboliziranje toksina. Xue bi, koji je sličan popularnim bezalkoholnim pićima Sprite i 7-Up, pokazao je najveću povećanu aktivnost ALDH i razgradnju acetaldehida. U novinama se navodi da uobičajeni dodatak bezalkoholnih pića taurin potiče efikasno uklanjanje acetaldehida. Stoga je ovo istraživanje ukazalo na Sprite ili druga bezalkoholna pića s taurinom kao na optimalni lijek protiv mamurluka.

Držeći se tekućih lijekova, studija Oshinsky & rsquos pripisuje jutarnju šalicu kave i aspirin. & ldquoNačin na koji blokiramo glavobolju kod štakora je pet sati nakon što smo ih izložili alkoholu, dali smo im kofein, kaže rdquo Oshinsky. & ldquoNesteroidni protuupalni lijekovi također blokiraju glavobolju kod štakora i oni imaju mnogo duži poluživot, pa možete liječiti životinju mnogo ranije, tri ili četiri sata prije glavobolje. & rdquo

Prolazeći pored protuotrova koji se prodaju bez recepta, Kalifornijskog sveučilišta u Los Angelesu, kemijski inženjer Yunfeng Lu koristi nanotehnologiju kako bi oponašao enzime jetre i rsquosa i ubrzao eliminaciju alkohola iz tijela. Lu & rsquos tim je pokazao da polimerne kapsule promjera samo nekoliko desetina nanometara koje sadrže enzime koji razgrađuju alkohol mogu smanjiti nivo alkohola u krvi kod opijenih miševa. Tim je svoj rad objavio u Nanotehnologija prirode. Lu planira daljnja istraživanja prije testiranja ove tehnologije na ljudima, ali ukazuje da nanokompleks ima daleko veće implikacije od samog liječenja mamurluka. U studiji Lu je zaključio, & ldquoS obzirom na ogromnu biblioteku enzima koji su trenutno ili potencijalno dostupni, nove klase enzimskih nanokompleksa mogle bi se izgraditi za širok raspon primjena. & Quot (Scientific American dio je Nature Publishing Group.)

Komplikovano je
No, nisu svi spremni pozdraviti nanomedicinu kao budući i odlučujući lijek za sve stvari, posebno liječnici koji su specijalizirani za mamurluk.

Anesteziolog Jason Burke vodi mobilnu kliniku sa sjedištem u Las Vegasu i ldquoHangover Heaven & rdquo i liječi mamurluk IV tekućinom, lijekom protiv mučnine Zofranom, lijekom protiv upale i upalom Toradol i zaštićenom mješavinom vitamina. On ostaje skeptičan prema bilo kojim i svim studijama mamurluka. & ldquoMoj najveći problem s istraživanjem mamurluka je način na koji većina ovih studija posmatra mamurluk, & rdquo kaže. & ldquoKad zapravo pogledate ozbiljnost mamurluka u većini ovih studija, oni nisu tako loši. & rdquo Dodaje da komisije za reviziju koje odobravaju medicinske eksperimente mamurluk neće smatrati etičkim ili sigurnim. Studije zasnovane na štakorima ili ljudima koji su popili četiri piva pobijedile su i pomogle klijentu od 24 piva s 0,3 alkohola u krvi, napominje on.

Ipak, Burke priznaje da ga Luina nanopilula za mamurluk intrigira. & ldquoLjudi se sada žele osjećati bolje, & rdquo kaže. & ldquoOvo je Amerika, zemlja čarobne pilule. & rdquo


Sadržaj

Prema članku u Historijska UK, izraz mamurluk vjerojatno nije došao iz prakse beskućnika u Londonu koji provode noć u sobi spavajući dok doslovno vise o konopu. Neki su objekti dozvoljavali ljudima da se naslanjaju na uže sjedeći na klupi, dok su drugi dozvoljavali samo da stoje i naslanjaju se na napeto uže. Uobičajeni trošak ovih smještajnih jedinica bio je dva penija i dao nam je izraz iz viktorijanske ere „mamurluk od dva groša“. [6]

Akademski prihvaćeno objašnjenje samo je proširenje osjećaja "preživljavanja, stvari preostale od prije" barem još 1902. [7] [8]

Alkoholni mamurluk povezan je s raznim simptomima koji mogu uključivati ​​pospanost, glavobolju, probleme s koncentracijom, suha usta, vrtoglavicu, gastrointestinalne tegobe, umor, znojenje, mučninu, prekomjernu ekscitabilnost, anksioznost i osjećaj opće nelagode koja može trajati duže više od 24 sata. [9] Simptomi mamurluka u alkoholu razvijaju se kada koncentracija alkohola u krvi značajno padne i dostigne vrhunac kada se vrati na gotovo nulu. [5] [10] Simptomi mamurluka potvrđeni u kontroliranim studijama uključuju opću slabost, žeđ, glavobolju, osjećaj vrtoglavice ili nesvjestice, umor, gubitak apetita, mučninu, bol u trbuhu i osjećaj kao da srce lupa. Neki simptomi, poput promjena u obrascu spavanja i gastrointestinalnih tegoba, pripisuju se izravnim posljedicama intoksikacije alkoholom ili simptomima ustezanja. [11] Pospanost i oslabljena kognitivna funkcija dvije su dominantne karakteristike alkoholnog mamurluka. [10]

Procesi koji dovode do mamurluka još uvijek se slabo razumiju. [2] Nekoliko patofizioloških promjena može uzrokovati mamurluk alkohola, uključujući povećane razine acetaldehida, hormonalne promjene u citokinskim putevima i smanjenje dostupnosti glukoze. Dodatni pridruženi fenomeni su dehidracija, metabolička acidoza, poremećena sinteza prostaglandina, povećan minutni volumen srca, vazodilatacija, nedostatak sna i nedovoljna prehrana. [1] Neki složeni organski molekuli koji se nalaze u alkoholnim pićima poznati kao kongeneri mogu igrati važnu ulogu u stvaranju učinaka mamurluka jer se neki, poput metanola, metaboliziraju u izrazito otrovne tvari formaldehid i mravlju kiselinu. [1]

Patofiziologija Uredi

Nakon unosa, etanol u alkoholnim pićima prvo se pretvara u acetaldehid pomoću enzima alkohol dehidrogenaze, a zatim oksidacijom i postupkom egezije u octenu kiselinu. Ove reakcije takođe pretvaraju nikotinamid adenin dinukleotid (NAD +) u njegov redukovani oblik NADH u redoks reakciji. Izazivajući neravnotežu redoks sistema NAD + /NADH, alkoholna pića otežavaju normalne tjelesne funkcije. Posljedice redoks promjena izazvanih alkoholom u ljudskom tijelu uključuju povećanu proizvodnju triglicerida, povećan katabolizam aminokiselina, inhibiciju ciklusa limunske kiseline, laktacidozu, ketoacidozu, hiperuricemiju, poremećaj metabolizma kortizola i androgena te povećanu fibrogenezu. Na metabolizam glukoze i inzulina također utječu. [12] Međutim, nedavne studije nisu pokazale značajnu povezanost između težine mamurluka i koncentracije različitih hormona, elektrolita, slobodnih masnih kiselina, triglicerida, laktata, ketonskih tijela, kortizola i glukoze u uzorcima krvi i urina. [3]

Alkohol također inducira enzim CYP2E1, koji metabolizira etanol i druge tvari u reaktivnije toksine. Konkretno, pri opijanju enzim se aktivira i igra ulogu u stvaranju štetnog stanja poznatog kao oksidativni stres koji može dovesti do stanične smrti. [13]

Acetaldehid Edit

Acetaldehid, prvi nusproizvod etanola, je između 10 i 30 puta toksičniji od samog alkohola [14] i može ostati na povišenom platou mnogo sati nakon početne potrošnje etanola. [15] Osim toga, određeni genetski faktori mogu pojačati negativne učinke acetaldehida. Na primjer, neki ljudi (uglavnom istočnoazijski) imaju mutaciju u svom genu alkoholne dehidrogenaze zbog čega ovaj enzim postaje neobično brz pri pretvaranju etanola u acetaldehid. Osim toga, otprilike polovica svih istočnih Azijata sporije pretvara acetaldehid u octenu kiselinu (putem acetaldehid dehidrogenaze), uzrokujući veće nakupljanje acetaldehida nego što je to uobičajeno u drugim skupinama. [16] Visoka koncentracija acetaldehida izaziva reakciju ispiranja alkohola, kolokvijalno poznatu kao "Asian Flush". Budući da je reakcija ispiranja alkohola vrlo neugodna, a mogućnost mamurluka trenutna i ozbiljna, manje je vjerojatno da će ljudi s ovom varijantom gena postati alkoholičari. [17] [18]

Acetaldehid može utjecati i na glutation peroksidazu, ključni antioksidativni enzim, te povećava osjetljivost na oksidativni stres. [13] Slično, octena kiselina (ili acetatni ion) može uzrokovati dodatne probleme. Jedno je istraživanje pokazalo da je ubrizgavanjem natrij acetata u štakora uzrokovano njihovo nociceptivno ponašanje (glavobolje). Osim toga, postoji biokemijsko objašnjenje za ovaj nalaz. Visoke razine acetata uzrokuju nakupljanje adenozina u mnogim dijelovima mozga. No, kada su štakorima dali kofein koji blokira djelovanje adenozina, više nisu osjećali glavobolje. [19] [20] [21]

Congeners Edit

Osim etanola i vode, većina alkoholnih pića sadrži i srodne sastojke, bilo kao aromu ili kao nusprodukt fermentacije i procesa odležavanja vina. Iako je etanol sam po sebi dovoljan za stvaranje većine učinaka mamurluka, kongeneri mogu u određenoj mjeri pogoršati mamurluk i druge zaostale učinke. Kongeneri uključuju tvari kao što su amini, amidi, acetoni, acetaldehidi, polifenoli, metanol, histamini, fuzelno ulje, estri, furfural i tanini, od kojih su mnogi otrovni, ali nisu svi. [11] Jedno istraživanje na miševima pokazalo je da truplje ulje može ublažiti simptome mamurluka, [22] dok neki kongeneri viskija, poput butanola, štite želudac od oštećenja želučane sluznice kod štakora. [23] Različite vrste alkoholnih pića sadrže različite količine kongenera. Općenito, tamne tekućine imaju veću koncentraciju, dok bistre tekućine imaju nižu koncentraciju. Dok votka praktički nema više kongenera od čistog etanola, burbon ima ukupni sadržaj kongenera 37 puta veći od onog koji se nalazi u votki. [11]

Nekoliko je studija ispitalo da li određene vrste alkohola uzrokuju pogoršanje mamurluka. [24] [25] [26] [27] Sve četiri studije su zaključile da su tamniji likeri, koji imaju veće srodne tvari, proizveli lošiji mamurluk. Jedan je čak pokazao da je mamurluk bio gori i češće sa tamnijim pićima. [24] U studiji iz 2006. godine prosječno je 14 standardnih pića (po 330 ml piva) bilo potrebno za stvaranje mamurluka, ali samo 7 do 8 pića bilo je potrebno za vino ili žestoka pića (imajte na umu da jedno standardno piće ima istu količinu alkohola bez obzira na vrstu). [27] Druga studija je rangirala nekoliko pića prema njihovoj sposobnosti da izazovu mamurluk na sljedeći način (od niskog do visokog): destilirani etanol razrijeđen voćnim sokom, pivom, votkom, džinom, bijelim vinom, viskijem, rumom, crnim vinom i rakijom. [26] [27]

Jedan snažan srodnik je metanol. Prirodno se formira u malim količinama tijekom fermentacije i može se slučajno koncentrirati nepravilnim tehnikama destilacije. Metabolizam metanola proizvodi neke izuzetno toksične spojeve, poput formaldehida i mravlje kiseline, koji mogu igrati ulogu u ozbiljnosti mamurluka. Etanol usporava pretvaranje metanola u njegove toksične metabolite, tako da se većina metanola može bezopasno izlučiti u dahu i urinu bez stvaranja njegovih toksičnih metabolita. Ovo može objasniti privremeno odlaganje simptoma prijavljenih u uobičajenom lijeku pijenja više alkohola za ublažavanje simptoma mamurluka. [11] [28] Pošto se metabolizam metanola učinkovito inhibira konzumacijom alkohola, metanol se nakuplja tokom pijenja i počinje se metabolizirati tek nakon što se etanol očisti. Ova odgođena radnja čini ga privlačnim objašnjenjem kandidata za odložene simptome post-intoksikacije i korelaciju između koncentracija metanola i prisutnosti simptoma mamurluka koji su pronađeni u studijama. [3]

Gubitak vitamina i elektrolita Edit

Metabolički procesi potrebni za uklanjanje alkohola iscrpljuju esencijalne vitamine [29] i elektrolite. [30] Nadalje, alkohol je diuretik koji uzrokuje izlučivanje elektrolita urinom. Nakon noći pijenja, rezultirajući nedostatak ključnih vitamina B i C, kao i kalija, magnezija i cinka može uzrokovati umor, bol i druge simptome slične mamurluku. [ potreban citat ]

Dehidracija Edit

Etanol ima dehidracijski učinak uzrokujući povećanu proizvodnju urina (diurezu), što može uzrokovati žeđ, suha usta, vrtoglavicu i dovesti do disbalansa elektrolita. Studije pokazuju da promjene elektrolita igraju samo manju ulogu u nastanku alkoholnog mamurluka i uzrokovane su efektima dehidracije. Voda za piće može pomoći u ublažavanju simptoma kao posljedica dehidracije, ali malo je vjerojatno da rehidracija značajno smanjuje prisutnost i ozbiljnost alkoholnog mamurluka. [3] Uticaj alkohola na sluznicu želuca može uzrokovati mučninu jer alkohol stimulira proizvodnju klorovodične kiseline u želucu.

Nizak šećer u krvi Edit

Studije pokazuju da je mamurluk u alkoholu povezan sa smanjenjem koncentracije glukoze u krvi (manje od 70 ml/dl), ali odnos između koncentracije glukoze u krvi i težine mamurluka nije jasan. [3] Poznata i kao inzulinski šok, hipoglikemija može dovesti do kome ili čak smrti. [31]

Imunološki sistem Edit

U sadašnjim istraživanjima, značajna veza između imunoloških faktora i težine mamurluka najuvjerljiviji je od svih dosad proučavanih faktora. [3] Utvrđeno je da neravnoteža imunološkog sistema, posebno metabolizma citokina, igra ulogu u patofiziologiji stanja mamurluka. Especially the hangover symptoms nausea, headache, and fatigue have been suggested to be mediated by changes in the immune system. The concentration of several cytokines have been found to be significantly increased in the blood after alcohol consumption. These include interleukin 12 (IL-12), interferon gamma (IFNγ) and interleukin 10 (IL-10). [32] Some pharmacological studies such as on tolfenamic acid [33] and Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) [34] have also indicated an involvement of the immune system. These studies suggest that the presence and severity of hangover symptoms can probably be reduced by administration of a cyclooxygenase inhibitor such as aspirin or ibuprofen. [3]

Person-related factors Edit

Several factors which do not in themselves cause alcohol hangover are known to influence its severity. These factors include personality, genetics, health status, age, sex, associated activities during drinking such as smoking, the use of other drugs, physical activity such as dancing, as well as sleep quality and duration. [3]

  • Genetics: alleles associated with aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and flushing phenotypes (alcohol flush reaction) in Asians are known genetic factors that influence alcohol tolerance and the development of hangover effects. Existing data shows that drinkers with genotypes known to lead to acetaldehyde accumulation are more susceptible to hangover effects. [35] The fact that about 25% of heavy drinkers claim that they have never had a hangover is also an indication that genetic variation plays a role in individual differences of hangover severity. [5]
  • Age: some people experience hangovers as getting worse as one ages. This is thought to be caused by declining supplies of alcohol dehydrogenase, the enzyme involved in metabolizing alcohol. Although it is actually unknown whether hangover symptoms and severity change with age, research shows that drinking patterns change across ages, and heavy drinking episodes that may result in hangover are much less often experienced as age increases. [5]
  • Sex: at the same number of drinks, women are more prone to hangover than men, and this is likely explained by sex differences in the pharmacokinetics of alcohol. Women attain a higher blood alcohol concentration (BAC) than men at the same number of drinks. At equivalent BACs, men and women appear to be indistinguishable with respect to most hangover effects. [35]
  • Cigarette smoking: acetaldehyde which is absorbed from cigarette smoking during alcohol consumption is regarded as a contributor to alcohol hangover symptoms. [13]

Hangovers are poorly understood from a medical point of view. [36] Health care professionals prefer to study alcohol abuse from a standpoint of treatment and prevention, and there is a view that the hangover provides a useful, natural and intrinsic disincentive to excessive drinking. [37]

Within the limited amount of serious study on the subject, there is debate about whether a hangover may be prevented or at least mitigated. There is also a vast body of folk medicine and simple quackery. A four-page literature review in the British Medical Journal concludes: "No compelling evidence exists to suggest that any conventional or complementary intervention is effective for preventing or treating alcohol hangover. The most effective way to avoid the symptoms of alcohol induced hangover is to avoid drinking." [4] Most remedies do not significantly reduce overall hangover severity. Some compounds reduce specific symptoms such as vomiting and headache, but are not effective in reducing other common hangover symptoms such as drowsiness and fatigue. [38]

Potentially beneficial Edit

Some sources indicate there is no evidence that any treatments for hangovers are effective. [4] [38]

    : Drinking water before going to bed or during hangover may relieve dehydration-associated symptoms such as thirst, dizziness, dry mouth, and headache. [3][24] such as aspirin or ibuprofen have been proposed as a treatment for the headaches associated with a hangover. There however is no evidence to support a benefit, and there are concerns that taking alcohol and aspirin together may increase the risk of stomach bleeding and liver damage. [38] , an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, in a 1983 study reduced headache, nausea, vomiting, irritation but had no effect on tiredness in 30 people. [38] : A 1973 study found that large doses (several hundred times the recommended daily intake) of Pyritinol, a synthetic Vitamin B6 analog, can help to reduce hangover symptoms. [24] Possible side effects of pyritinol include hepatitis (liver damage) due to cholestasis and acute pancreatitis. [39][40] : The difference in the change for discomfort, restlessness, and impatience were statistically significant but no significant differences on blood chemistry parameters, blood alcohol or acetaldehyde concentrations have been found, and it did not significantly improve general well-being. [38] : In March 2020, the Swiss startup, Kaex, gained market approval [41] from the Swiss Medicines Agency, Swissmedic, for a hangover treatment consisting of an analgesic and a mixture of 25 biomolecules. [42] The analgesic corresponds to the active ingredient carbasalate calcium, the calcium-ureasalt of acetlysalicylic acid. [43] Due to its better water solubility, carbasalate calcium is more easily absorbed than free acetylsalicylic acid. [44] As a result, effective blood levels are reached in a shorter time [45] and the risk of gastric damages is significantly lower than with aspirin. [46] The mixture also contains, among other substances for rehydration and cell protecion, antacids, i.e., calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate, which further reduce the risk of gastric damages. [47]

Unsupported remedies Edit

Recommendations for foods, drinks and activities to relieve hangover symptoms abound. The ancient Romans, on the authority of Pliny the Elder, favored raw owl's eggs or fried canary, [48] while the "prairie oyster" restorative, introduced at the 1878 Paris World Exposition, calls for raw egg yolk mixed with Worcestershire sauce, Tabasco sauce, salt and pepper. [49] By 1938, the Ritz-Carlton Hotel provided a hangover remedy in the form of a mixture of Coca-Cola and milk [49] (Coca-Cola itself having been invented, by some accounts, [50] [51] as a hangover remedy). Alcoholic writer Ernest Hemingway relied on tomato juice and beer. [52] Other purported hangover cures include cocktails such as Bloody Mary or Black Velvet (consisting of equal parts champagne and stout). [52] A 1957 survey by an American folklorist found widespread belief in the efficacy of heavy fried foods, tomato juice and sexual activity. [53]

Other untested or discredited treatments include:

    : The belief is that consumption of further alcohol after the onset of a hangover will relieve symptoms, based upon the theory that the hangover represents a form of alcohol withdrawal[37] and that by satiating the body's need for alcohol the symptoms will be relieved. Social drinkers and alcoholics claim that drinking more alcohol gives relief from hangover symptoms, but research shows that the use of alcohol as a hangover cure seems to predict current or future problem drinking and alcohol use disorder, through negative reinforcement and the development of physical dependence. [28][35] While the practice is popular in tradition [53] and promoted by many sellers of alcoholic beverages, [54] medical opinion holds that the practice merely postpones the symptoms, and courts addiction. [55] Favored choices include a Corpse Reviver, Fernet Branca[56] and Bloody Mary. [57] (葛, Pueraria montana var. lobata): The main ingredient in remedies such as kakkonto. A study concluded, "The chronic usage of Pueraria lobata at times of high ethanol consumption, such as in hangover remedies, may predispose subjects to an increased risk of acetaldehyde-related neoplasm and pathology. . Pueraria lobata appears to be an inappropriate herb for use in herbal hangover remedies as it is an inhibitor of ALDH2." [58] : Research shows that artichoke extract does not prevent the signs and symptoms of alcohol-induced hangover. [38] or steam-bath: Medical opinion holds this may be dangerous, as the combination of alcohol and hyperthermia increases the likelihood of dangerous abnormal heart rhythms. [59] : There have been anecdotal reports from those with easy access to a breathing oxygen supply – medical staff, and military pilots — that oxygen can also reduce the symptoms of hangovers sometimes caused by alcohol consumption. The theory is that the increased oxygen flow resulting from oxygen therapy improves the metabolic rate, and thus increases the speed at which toxins are broken down. [60] However, one source states that (in an aviation context) oxygen has no effect on physical impairment caused by hangover. [61] and glucose: Glucose and fructose significantly inhibit the me tabolic changes produced by alcohol intoxication, nevertheless they have no significant effect on hangover severity. [38] : No effects on alcohol metabolism, peak blood alcohol and glucose concentrations have been found and psychomotor function is not significantly improved when using Vitamin B6 suplementi. [38] : No significant correlation between caffeine use and hangover severity has been found. [62]
  • A 1990 study of students at a rural New England university found that 25% had experienced a hangover in the previous week and 29% reported losing school time for hangover recovery. [24][63]
  • Fifteen percent of men and women who have consumed alcohol experience hangovers at least monthly and 10% of British men reported hangover-related problems at work at least monthly. [24]
  • An estimated 9.23% (11.6 million workers) of the U.S. labor force work with a hangover. [64]
  • About 23% of drinkers do not report any hangover after drinking to intoxication. [11]

A somewhat dated French idiomatic expression for hangover is "mal aux cheveux", literally "sore hair" (or "[even] my hair hurts"). [65] In the 19th century United States, a hangover was sometimes called a Katzenjammer from the German for "screeching cats". [65] Some terms for 'hangover' are derived from names for liquor, for example, in Chile a hangover is known as a caña [66] from a Spanish slang term for a glass of beer. [67] Similar is the Irish 'brown bottle flu' derived from the type of bottle common to beer. [68]

Alcohol hangover has considerable economic consequences. A British study found that alcohol use accounted for 3.3 billion (USD) in lost wages each year, as a result of work missed because of hangovers. In Canada 1.4 billion (USD) is lost each year because of decreased occupational productivity caused by hangover-like symptoms. In Finland, a country with a population of 5 million persons, over 1 million workdays are lost each year because of hangovers. The average annual opportunity cost due to hangovers are estimated as 2000 (USD) per working adult. [24] The socioeconomic implications of an alcohol hangover include workplace absenteeism, impaired job performance, reduced productivity and poor academic achievement. Potentially dangerous daily activities such as driving a car or operating heavy machinery are also negatively influenced. [5]

In mid-2017, it was reported that one company in the UK allows sick days when hung over. [69]

Psychological research of alcohol hangover is growing rapidly. [ potreban citat ] The Alcohol Hangover Research Group had its inaugural meeting in June 2010 as part of the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) 33rd Annual Scientific Meeting in San Antonio, Texas, USA. [ potreban citat ]

In 2012, Éduc'alcool, a Quebec-based non-profit organization that aims to educate the public on the responsible use of alcohol, published a report noting hangovers have long-lasting effects that inhibit the drinker's capabilities a full 24 hours after heavy drinking. [70]


Before You Go to Sleep

Don't overdo it on the water. It's true that hangovers can happen when your body gets too much bad liquid (alcohol) and not enough of the good kind (water).

However, Dr. Kovacs says chugging water can put undue stress on your body. And frequent bathroom runs can mess with your sleep. So after a night of heavy drinking, down a glass of water (and a second one, if you're particularly thirsty), and leave a full glass on your nightstand to treat dry mouth at 5 a.m.

Slap on a sleeping mask. While sleep deprivation won't cause a hangover, it can make your hangover worse, per a study published in Current Drug Abuse Reviews. Incidentally, alcohol disrupts the second part of your sleep, according to a study in Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, which occurs after the sun rises if you go to sleep particularly late. While you can't control the quality of your sleep after a litty night, you can minimize environmental disruptions with a sleep mask that keeps light out of your eyes.


Indulging in Hair of the Dog

Shutterstock

Another hangover myth is allowing yourself a little hair of the dog. You know, an early morning mimosa with brunch or what's lovingly known as The Next Day Vodka Soda. Many people believe that a little more alcohol will actually cause relief symptoms, but it's a hangover no-no.

"Do not have more drinks after you are hungover," says Betancourt. "You confuse your body and have the potential to introduce greater amounts of Formaldehyde—a highly toxic substance converted from Methanol, which is found in dark alcohol—to your liver and obviously, prolonging the hangover relief process."


7 steps to cure your hangover

Hangovers seem to be the body's way of reminding us about the hazards of overindulgence. Physiologically, it's a group effort: Diarrhea, fatigue, headache, nausea, and shaking are the classic symptoms. Sometimes, systolic (the upper number) blood pressure goes up, the heart beats faster than normal, and sweat glands overproduce — evidence that the "fight or flight" response is revved up. Some people become sensitive to light or sound. Others suffer a spinning sensation (vertigo).

The causes are as varied as the symptoms. Alcohol is metabolized into acetaldehyde, a substance that's toxic at high levels. However, concentrations rarely get that high, so that's not the complete explanation.

Drinking interferes with brain activity during sleep, so a hangover may be a form of sleep deprivation. Alcohol scrambles the hormones that regulate our biological clocks, which may be why a hangover can feel like jet lag, and vice versa. Alcohol can also trigger migraines, so some people may think they're hung over when it's really an alcohol-induced migraine they're suffering.

Hangovers begin after blood alcohol levels start to fall. In fact, according to some experts, the worst symptoms occur when levels reach zero.

The key ingredient seems to be "drinking to intoxication" how much you drank to get there is less important. In fact, several studies suggest that light and moderate drinkers are more vulnerable to getting a hangover than heavy drinkers. Yet there's also seemingly contradictory research showing that people with a family history of alcoholism have worse hangovers. Researchers say some people may end up with drinking problems because they drink in an effort to relieve hangover symptoms.

Dr. Robert Swift, a researcher at the Providence Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Rhode Island, coauthored one of the few review papers on hangovers in 1998. It's still one of the most frequently cited sources on the topic. The rundown on hangover remedies that follows is based on that review, an interview with Dr. Swift, and several other sources.

1. Hair of the dog. Drinking to ease the symptoms of a hangover is sometimes called taking the hair of the dog, or hair of the dog that bit you. The notion is that hangovers are a form of alcohol withdrawal, so a drink or two will ease the withdrawal.

There may be something to it, says Dr. Swift. Both alcohol and certain sedatives, such as benzodiazepines like diazepam (Valium), interact with GABA receptors on brain cells, he explains. And it's well documented that some people have withdrawal symptoms from short-acting sedatives as they wear off. Perhaps the brain reacts similarly as blood alcohol levels begin to drop.

Even so, Dr. Swift advises against using alcohol as a hangover remedy. "The hair of the dog just perpetuates a cycle," he says. "It doesn't allow you to recover."

2. Drink fluids. Alcohol promotes urination because it inhibits the release of vasopressin, a hormone that decreases the volume of urine made by the kidneys. If your hangover includes diarrhea, sweating, or vomiting, you may be even more dehydrated. Although nausea can make it difficult to get anything down, even just a few sips of water might help your hangover.

3. Get some carbohydrates into your system. Drinking may lower blood sugar levels, so theoretically some of the fatigue and headaches of a hangover may be from a brain working without enough of its main fuel. Moreover, many people forget to eat when they drink, further lowering their blood sugar. Toast and juice is a way to gently nudge levels back to normal.

4. Avoid darker-colored alcoholic beverages. Experiments have shown that clear liquors, such as vodka and gin, tend to cause hangovers less frequently than dark ones, such as whiskey, red wine, and tequila. The main form of alcohol in alcoholic beverages is ethanol, but the darker liquors contain chemically related compounds (congeners), including methanol. According to Dr. Swift's review paper, the same enzymes process ethanol and methanol, but methanol metabolites are especially toxic, so they may cause a worse hangover.

5. Take a pain reliever, but not Tylenol. Aspirin, ibuprofen (Motrin, other brands), and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may help with the headache and the overall achy feelings. NSAIDs, though, may irritate a stomach already irritated by alcohol. Don't take acetaminophen (Tylenol). If alcohol is lingering in your system, it may accentuate acetaminophen's toxic effects on the liver.

6. Drink coffee or tea. Caffeine may not have any special anti-hangover powers, but as a stimulant, it could help with the grogginess. Coffee is a diuretic, though, so it may exacerbate dehydration.

7. B vitamins and zinc. A study recently published in The Journal of Clinical Medicine evaluated the diets for 24 hours before and after excessive drinking occurred. It was a small study and results were based on the participants saying what they ate. However, they did find that people whose food and beverage consumption contained greater amounts of zinc and B vitamins had less severe hangovers.

Explore the many factors to consider when deciding how much (if any) alcohol is safe for you. Buy the Special Health Report, Alcohol Use and Abuse to get details of the dangers of alcohol misuse, from drunk driving to chronic, life-threatening health conditions.


13 Ways to Prevent and Cure Your Life-Threatening Hangover

It’s 2 pm. You’ve finally woken up after a crazier night out than usual. The sun is at that angle where it shines right through your window and straight into your face. It’s been over 10 hours since your hazy cab ride home, but you’re still hungover. Your only thoughts are a) Dear Lord, how is this possible, and b) how am I going to survive this day.

Because we’ve been there and we love you, we’ve got your back. Not only are we going to tell you ways to make your hangover more bearable, but we’re also going to fill you in on some ways to nip that hangover in the bud even before you start drinking. We didn’t do it on our own, though—we partnered with our new favorite antioxidant booster Bai5 for some advice. What can we say, we get by with a little help from our friends.

Pre-Boozin’

1. A little caffeine never hurt anyone.

Gif courtesy of elitedaily.com

We’ll get into the nitty gritty of Bai5 later on, but one of the most desirable qualities about this delicious drink is its caffeine content. This trendy bev is made from the coffeefruit, which is the outside layer of the coffee bean that’s usually discarded when making your morning coffee. You could opt for a Monster or Red Bull, but Bai5 provides a much classier, chemical-free, and naturally sweetened option to get you appropriately jazzed for your night out.

2. Eat a real meal.

Photo courtesy of INFphoto.com

Yeah, you heard us. We get you want to feel skinny in your sexy dress, but eating a balanced meal full of protein and healthy fats instead of a few leafy greens will slow your body’s absorption of alcohol, starting you off on a hangover-free track even before your first sip.

3. Skip the carbs.

Photo courtesy of rebloggy.com

We swear we don’t mean to lecture you on what you’re eating, but try and stay away from the carbs if you can. Trust us, we appreciate a good bowl of pasta or slice of pizza, but your liver is already going to be working overtime to break down the alcohol you’ll be consuming. Don’t make it work even harder to make sure your blood glucose levels are on track.

4. Take your vitamins.

Gif courtesy of okdani.com

Drinking is hard work for your body, so nutrients from vitamins are essential in helping the metabolization process run smoothly. Certain recommended vitamins include Vitamin C, known for its immune-boosting powers, and Vitamin B, because the Vitamin Bs you have right now are about to go straight to your liver.

Boozin’

5. Meet your new favorite mixer

Photo by Analiese Trimber

Our buddy Bai5 packs quite a flavor punch despite only having 5 calories and 1 gram of sugar per serving. Well that rocks, now doesn’t it. Bai5 has a strong flavor to mask the taste of alcohol without the added calories from typical mixers, like soda or fruit juices.

Plus the added hydration and antioxidants sets your body into anti-hangover drive even while you’re throwing ’em back. Make sure to check out the Bai website for some of their favorite cocktail recipes.

6. So these things called cogeners…

Cogeners are toxic chemicals produced during the fermentation process that give alcohol its flavor and color. They’re found most often in darker libations like rum and whiskey partly due to a shorter filtration process, so even if you’re really craving that rum and coke, try opting for vodka or gin instead. Clear liquors = less cogeners = less chance for hangover.

7. Carbonated drinks: just don’t do it.

Gif courtesy of xclusivetouch.co.uk

Remember that one New Years where you thought it’d be super classy to only drink champagne all night? Well, you definitely remember the morning after because you probably woke up and wanted to die.

Carbonated beverages, like champagne and soda, can actually cause your stomach to expand, which means—surprise!—that alcohol you’re chugging is getting absorbed at a way faster rate than normal.

So even if you drink the same amount of drinks you usually do but are drinking Sprite instead of OJ, you’re getting more drunk than normal, which could translate into being more hungover than normal, and nobody wants that.

8. Don Draper was doing it wrong.

Gif courtesy of mashable.com

All the characters in Mad Men look super classy while downing their whiskey with cigarettes in hand, but smoking cigarettes while drinking has actually been proven to make your hangover worse. Just read up on this study if you don’t believe us.

9. You’re in college and poor, but that cheap liquor isn’t doing you any favors.

Gif courtesy of reddit.com

To put this as simply as possible, the more high-end the liquor, the more time it spent in the filtration process. The more filtered the beverage, the less toxins and cogeners, the happier you. Seriously, we wouldn’t have you spend more money if it wasn’t worth it.

Post-Boozin’

10. Hit up the antioxidants.

Photo by Analiese Trimber

Vitamin C pills are a good start, or you can get a healthy dose of antioxidants from our buddy Bai5. Antioxidants are so good for you in general, but especially when you’re hungover because they eliminate free radicals, which are harmful molecules produced as a result of oxidation.

11. Take an Ibuprofen.

Photo by Analiese Trimber

This one’s a no-brainer. Even if you’re one of those people that doesn’t like taking pain meds, just swallow your pride and do it. Ibuprofen or Aspirin will combat that headache which, let’s be real, is debatably the most crippling part of any hangover. You won’t regret it.

12. Skip the champy, keep the juice.

Gif courtesy of hilariousgifs.com

You’re really going to hate us for this one, but drinking alcohol, even if it’s in Mimosa or Krvava Mary form, isn’t going to cure your hangover—it’ll just delay it. Opt for OJ straight up, or really any type of juice for that matter. Fructose can help restore your blood sugar back to normal. Aleluja.

13. Just another reason why eggs are the greatest food there is.

Photo courtesy La Fuji Mama

Eggs contain a chemical called cysteine that has been proven to fight through some of those toxins responsible for your splitting headache. You can try and pair it with your choice of greasy, meaty accompaniment, but that might make you queasy so maybe just stick with a plain omelet or eggs over easy.

Gif courtesy of goodreads.com

Make sure to stick with these super easy tips and make sure your Bai5 supply is fully stocked and you’ll be a party pro and the envy of all your friends. No seriously, they’ll be super jealous they’re hungover and you’re not. We call it the Spoon Advantage.

Check out these other articles about hangovers…the more ya know.


6. Taking shots when you're already drunk.

Shots any time of night probably aren't the best idea, but they might be even worse after you've had a few drinks. "The possible logic behind this idea is that if you are already tipsy from beer, you might be more likely to take more shots in a shorter period of time because your judgement is impaired and you can't tell how hard the liquor will hit you," White says. So the shots end up spiking your peak BAC and really affecting your brain.

Do this instead: If you're going to take a shot, maybe do it when you're sober, so you're aware of how it affects you and you can slow down or stop drinking after.


Different drinks, different hangovers

Does champagne give the worst hangovers? Photograph: Jacqueline Veissid/Getty Images

OK, OK, wines, beers and spirits contain chemicals other than ethanol. These do affect how we feel, but more in that some are toxic and will lead to worse hangovers than others, rather than one making us dance really well while another makes us better at playing pool. Yes, there is always absinthe, which contains the psychoactive compound thujone, but only an innocuous amount in the stuff (don’t let that get in the way of booze mythology, though).

“Cheaper wines,” says Professor Roger Corder of Barts and the London School of Medicine and the author of the Wine Diet, “often have all sorts of rubbish in them and give terrible hangovers.” And the adage that darker drinks (whisky, beer, red wine) make you feel worse the next day seems to be true: they usually contain more congeners – chemical byproducts from the production process which often contribute to the flavour of the drink.

One congener which deserves a special mention is methanol, which is like ethanol, only more poisonous, and there is often too much of it in brandy, port and even some wines. Methanol can’t be metabolised, says Corder, until all the ethanol is cleared from the system, because the enzymes that process it prioritise ethanol. “It just washes round in your body until it is eventually converted to formaldehyde and formic acid, which are neurotoxins.” These will make you feel poorly. Methanol is deemed safe if below 200mg a litre. “But sometimes it’s over that level,” says Corder.

A lot of people say they get the worst hangovers from champagne. This is probably because they guzzle it on an empty stomach having just arrived at a party, feeling skittish. There is, however, some evidence that it gets you drunk quicker. Barry Smith, a philosophy professor who heads the Centre for the Study of the Senses at the University of London and writes about wine (polymath alert), subscribes to the theory that bubbles cause the pylorus valve, which drains the stomach when it’s full, to open even when it’s not full. Not much alcohol is absorbed by the stomach, whereas 80% gets into the system via the intestine.

As an aside, Smith has also been observing the affects of different music on champagne enjoyment. He found that syncopation best compliments the waves of bubbles – otherwise known as the mousse – washing over the tongue. “If the rhythm matches the bubbles, the brain seems to notice and say, hang on, there’s a correspondence here. If it sees some synchronicity between two things then it locks on to them, and becomes much more activated.” Jazz and fizz it is then.

But, look, we all know the truth here: if you have a bad hangover, or wept at the Christmas party, it was simply because you were very drunk. Da li griješim?


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